In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no signs that online dating was independently associated with a higher danger of UAI than offline dating. For HIV negative men this lack of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV-positive men there was a nonsignificant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Only among guys who suggested they weren't informed of their HIV status (a little group in this study), UAI was more common with online than offline partners. Backpage escorts near Wentworthville New South Wales.
The amount of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was also associated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had occurred in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the partnership compared to just one sex act). Other factors significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the venture, and sex-connected multiple drug use within partnership.
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), also including variants concerning sexual behaviour in the partnership (sex-associated multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner kind), the separate effect of online dating place on UAI became somewhat more powerful (though not critical) for the HIV-positive men (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV negative men (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The result of online dating on UAI became stronger (and significant) for HIV-oblivious guys (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ). Backpage escorts near me Wentworthville.
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more likely to occur in online than in offline partnerships (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was strongly correlated with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The result of dating place on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the organization of online dating using three distinct reference categories, one for each HIV status. Among HIV positive men, UAI was more common in online compared to offline ventures (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV negative men no association was apparent between UAI and online partnerships (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Among HIV-unaware guys, UAI was more common in online in comparison to offline ventures, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
Backpage escorts near me NSW. Characteristics of on-line and offline partners and ventures are revealed in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more on-line partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of on-line partners was more frequently reported as known (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in on-line partnerships, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their online partners more frequently knew the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more frequently reported multiple sexual contacts with internet partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-related substance use, alcohol use, and group sex were less frequently reported with on-line partners.
In order to examine the possible mediating effect of more information on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three multivariable models. In version 1, we adjusted the association between online/offline dating place and UAI for characteristics of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the venture characteristics (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In version 3, we adapted also for venture sexual risk behavior (i.e., sex-associated drug use and sex frequency) and venture type (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating location for HIV positive, HIV-negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating location was contained in all three models by making a fresh six-category variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented separately for HIV negative, HIV positive, and HIV-oblivious guys. We performed a sensitivity analysis limited to partnerships in which only one sexual contact occurred. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to lose potentially significant associations. As a rather large number of statistical tests were done and reported, this strategy does lead to an increased risk of one or more false-positive associations. Evaluations were done using the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA). Backpage Escorts near Wentworthville.
Backpage Escorts in Wentworthville. Before the investigations we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variants were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; online partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were assumed to be on the causal pathway between the main exposure of interest and results (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; venture sort; sex frequency within venture; group sex with partner; sex-associated material use in venture).
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-evaluations for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared characteristics of participants, partners, and partnership sexual conduct by on-line or offline partnership, and calculated P values based on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for correlated data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, amount of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to examine the association between dating location (online versus offline) and UAI. Likelihood ratio tests were used to gauge the significance of a variable in a model.
In order to explore possible disclosure of HIV status we additionally asked the participant whether the casual sex partner knew the HIV status of the participant, together with the response options: (1) no, (2) maybe, (3) yes. New South Wales backpage escorts. Sexual behaviour with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or just protected anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To determine the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to one or more of the following subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, substitute, drag, leather, military, sports, trendy, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if none of these characteristics were applicable, other. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Casual partner sort was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
HIV status of the participant was obtained by asking the question 'Do you know whether you're HIV infected?', with five response choices: (1) I am certainly not HIV-contaminated; (2) I believe that I'm not HIV-infected; (3) I don't know; (4) I believe I may be HIV-contaminated; (5) I know for sure that I 'm HIV-contaminated. We categorised this into HIV negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV-positive (4,5) status. Wentworthville, NSW Backpage Escorts. The survey enquired about the HIV status of each sex partner with all the question: 'Do you understand whether this partner is HIV-infected?' with similar response alternatives as previously. Perceived concordance in HIV status within partnerships was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The last category represents all partnerships where the participant did not understand his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous survey during their trip to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary evaluation results after their consultation using a nurse or doctor. Backpage Escorts nearest Wentworthville, New South Wales. The survey elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and information on sexual conduct with those partners. A detailed description of the study design and the survey is provided elsewhere 15 , 18 Our main determinant of interest, dating location (e.g., the name of a pub, park, club, or the name of a website) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into online (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating places. To simplify the language of differentiating the partners per dating location, we refer to them as on-line or offline partners.
We used data from a cross-sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and could comprehend written Dutch or English. Individuals could participate more than once, if subsequent visits to the clinic were related to a possible new STI episode. Participants were regularly screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was accepted by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Contained in this analysis were men who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline. Backpage escorts in Wentworthville Australia.
With increased familiarity in sexual partnerships, for example by concordant ethnicity, age, lifestyle, HIV status, and raising sex frequency, the likelihood for UAI increase as well 14 - 16 We compared the occurrence of UAI in online got casual partnerships to that in offline acquired casual partnerships among MSM who reported both online and offline casual partners in the preceding six months. Backpage Escorts near Wentworthville New South Wales. We hypothesised that MSM who date sex partners both online and offline, report more UAI with the casual partners they date online, and that this effect is partially explained through better knowledge of partner features, including HIV status.
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