In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no signs that online dating was independently associated with a higher danger of UAI than offline dating. Backpage Escorts near me Sebastopol, South Australia. Sebastopol, SA Australia Backpage Escorts. For HIV negative guys this dearth of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV positive men there was a non-significant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Simply among guys who indicated they were not conscious of their HIV status (a little group in this study), UAI was more common with online than offline associates.
The number of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was also connected with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had happened in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the partnership compared to just one sex act). Other factors significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the venture, and sex-connected multiple drug use within partnership.
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), also including variables concerning sexual behavior in the partnership (sex-related multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner type), the separate effect of online dating place on UAI became somewhat stronger (though not critical) for the HIV positive men (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV-negative guys (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). Backpage Escorts nearest Sebastopol. The result of online dating on UAI became stronger (and essential) for HIV-oblivious guys (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ).
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more inclined to occur in online than in offline partnerships (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was firmly connected with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). Backpage escorts nearby Sebastopol South Australia. The result of dating location on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the association of online dating using three distinct reference categories, one for each HIV status. Among HIV-positive men, UAI was more common in online in comparison to offline ventures (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV-negative men no association was apparent between UAI and on-line ventures (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Among HIV-unaware men, UAI was more common in online in comparison to offline ventures, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
Characteristics of online and offline partners and ventures are shown in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more online partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of on-line partners was more frequently reported as known (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in on-line partnerships, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their on-line partners more frequently knew the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. Backpage Escorts in Sebastopol. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more often reported multiple sexual contacts with internet partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-related material use, alcohol use, and group sex were less frequently reported with internet partners. Sebastopol SA Backpage Escorts.
In order to analyze the possible mediating effect of more information on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three multivariable models. In model 1, we adjusted the organization between online/offline dating location and UAI for characteristics of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the partnership features (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In model 3, we adapted also for venture sexual risk behavior (i.e., sex-associated drug use and sex frequency) and partnership type (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating place for HIV-positive, HIV negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating location was included in all three models by making a fresh six-category variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented separately for HIV negative, HIV positive, and HIV-oblivious guys. We performed a sensitivity analysis restricted to partnerships in which just one sexual contact occurred. Backpage escorts nearby Sebastopol. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to lose potentially important organizations. As a fairly large number of statistical evaluations were done and reported, this approach does lead to a heightened risk of one or more false positive organizations. Evaluations were done utilizing the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA).
Before the investigations we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variants were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; online partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were presumed to be on the causal pathway between the principal exposure of interest and outcome (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; partnership kind; sex frequency within partnership; group sex with partner; sex-associated material use in partnership).
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-evaluations for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared features of participants, partners, and partnership sexual conduct by online or offline venture, and computed P values based on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for correlated data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, number of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to examine the association between dating location (online versus offline) and UAI. Likelihood ratio tests were used to gauge the significance of a variable in a model.
In order to investigate potential disclosure of HIV status we additionally asked the participant whether the casual sex partner understood the HIV status of the participant, with the response options: (1) no, (2) potentially, (3) yes. Sexual behavior with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or only protected anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To determine the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to at least one of the following subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, alternate, drag, leather, military, sports, fashionable, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if not one of these characteristics were related, other. Backpage escorts near me Sebastopol South Australia. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Chance partner type was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
HIV status of the participant was got by asking the question 'Do you know whether you are HIV infected?', with five answer choices: (1) I am definitely not HIV-infected; (2) I think that I'm not HIV-infected; (3) I do not understand; (4) I think I may be HIV-contaminated; (5) I know for sure that I am HIV-contaminated. We categorised this into HIV-negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV-positive (4,5) status. The survey enquired about the HIV status of every sex partner together with the question: 'Do you know whether this partner is HIV-contaminated?' with similar response choices as above. Perceived concordance in HIV status within partnerships was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The last group represents all partnerships where the participant didn't understand his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous survey during their trip to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary evaluation results after their consultation using a nurse or doctor. The survey elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and information on sexual behaviour with those partners. A comprehensive description of the study design and the survey is provided elsewhere 15 , 18 Our main determinant of interest, dating place (e.g., the name of a pub, park, club, or the name of a web site) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into on-line (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating locations. Backpage Escorts near Sebastopol, SA Australia. To simplify the terminology of differentiating the partners per dating place, we refer to them as online or offline partners.
We used data from a cross-sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and might comprehend written Dutch or English. People could participate more than once, if following visits to the practice were related to a potential new STI episode. Participants were regularly screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was accepted by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Backpage Escorts nearest Sebastopol, South Australia. Contained in this investigation were guys who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline.
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