In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no signs that online dating was independently related to a higher danger of UAI than offline dating. For HIV-negative men this dearth of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV positive guys there was a non significant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Just among guys who suggested they were not informed of their HIV status (a little group in this study), UAI was more common with online than offline associates. Backpage escorts near Sutherland South Australia.
The number of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was likewise connected with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had happened in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the venture compared to only one sex act). Other factors significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the partnership, and sex-connected multiple drug use within partnership.
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), also including variables concerning sexual behaviour in the partnership (sex-associated multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner type), the independent effect of online dating location on UAI became somewhat more powerful (though not critical) for the HIV-positive men (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV-negative men (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The effect of online dating on UAI became stronger (and essential) for HIV-oblivious men (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ). Backpage escorts closest to Sutherland.
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more prone to occur in on-line than in offline ventures (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was strongly connected with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The result of dating place on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the association of online dating using three different reference groups, one for each HIV status. Among HIV-positive guys, UAI was more common in online in comparison to offline partnerships (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV negative men no association was evident between UAI and internet partnerships (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Among HIV-oblivious guys, UAI was more common in online in comparison to offline partnerships, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
Backpage Escorts near me SA. Characteristics of online and offline partners and ventures are shown in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more online partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of online partners was more often reported as understood (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in online ventures, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their online partners more often understood the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more often reported multiple sexual contacts with internet partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-related material use, alcohol use, and group sex were less often reported with on-line partners.
To be able to analyze the potential mediating effect of more information on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three multivariable models. In model 1, we adapted the organization between online/offline dating location and UAI for features of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the partnership features (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In version 3, we adapted additionally for venture sexual risk behaviour (i.e., sex-associated drug use and sex frequency) and partnership kind (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating place for HIV positive, HIV negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating location was contained in all three models by making a brand new six-class variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented individually for HIV negative, HIV-positive, and HIV-unaware men. We performed a sensitivity analysis restricted to partnerships in which just one sexual contact occurred. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to miss potentially significant organizations. As a rather big number of statistical tests were done and reported, this approach does lead to an elevated danger of one or more false-positive organizations. Investigations were done utilizing the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA). Backpage escorts nearby Sutherland.
Backpage Escorts near Sutherland. Before the evaluations we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variables were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; online partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were supposed to be on the causal pathway between the main exposure of interest and results (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; venture sort; sex frequency within venture; group sex with partner; sex-associated material use in partnership).
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-tests for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared characteristics of participants, partners, and partnership sexual conduct by on-line or offline venture, and computed P values predicated on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for linked data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, amount of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to examine the association between dating place (online versus offline) and UAI. Likelihood ratio tests were used to evaluate the significance of a variable in a model.
As a way to explore possible disclosure of HIV status we also asked the participant whether the casual sex partner understood the HIV status of the participant, together with the response alternatives: (1) no, (2) potentially, (3) yes. South Australia Backpage Escorts. Sexual behaviour with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or simply shielded anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To determine the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to one or more of the following subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, substitute, drag, leather, military, sports, fashionable, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if not one of these characteristics were applicable, other. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Chance partner kind was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
HIV status of the participant was obtained by asking the question 'Do you know whether you are HIV infected?', with five response options: (1) I am certainly not HIV-infected; (2) I think that I'm not HIV-infected; (3) I do not know; (4) I think I may be HIV-infected; (5) I know for sure that I 'm HIV-contaminated. We categorised this into HIV negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV-positive (4,5) status. Sutherland SA Backpage Escorts. The questionnaire enquired about the HIV status of each sex partner together with the question: 'Do you know whether this partner is HIV-infected?' with similar response options as previously. Perceived concordance in HIV status within ventures was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The final group represents all partnerships where the participant did not understand his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous survey during their visit to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary evaluation results after their consultation using a nurse or doctor. Backpage escorts in Sutherland South Australia. The survey elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and data on sexual behavior with those partners. A comprehensive description of the study design as well as the survey is supplied elsewhere 15 , 18 Our primary determinant of interest, dating location (e.g., the name of a pub, park, club, or the name of a site) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into on-line (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating places. To simplify the language of distinguishing the partners per dating location, we refer to them as on-line or offline partners.
We used data from a cross-sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and may understand written Dutch or English. Individuals could participate more than once, if subsequent visits to the clinic were related to a possible new STI episode. Participants were routinely screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was accepted by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Contained in this evaluation were guys who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline. Backpage Escorts near me Sutherland Australia.
With increased acquaintance in sexual partnerships, for example by concordant ethnicity, age, lifestyle, HIV status, and raising sex frequency, the odds for UAI increase as well 14 - 16 We compared the occurrence of UAI in online acquired casual partnerships to that in offline got casual partnerships among MSM who reported both on-line and offline casual partners in the preceding six months. Backpage escorts in Sutherland South Australia. We hypothesised that MSM who date sex partners both online and offline, report more UAI with the casual partners they date online, and that this effect is partly explained through better knowledge of partner characteristics, including HIV status.
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