In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no evidence that online dating was independently associated with a higher risk of UAI than offline dating. Backpage escorts near me Wantirna South, Victoria. Wantirna South VIC Australia Backpage Escorts. For HIV-negative guys this dearth of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV-positive guys there was a nonsignificant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Simply among men who indicated they weren't aware of their HIV status (a small group in this study), UAI was more common with online than offline partners.
The number of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was likewise correlated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had occurred in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the venture compared to just one sex act). Other variables significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the partnership, and sex-related multiple drug use within partnership.
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), additionally including variants concerning sexual behavior in the venture (sex-associated multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner kind), the separate effect of online dating location on UAI became somewhat stronger (though not critical) for the HIV-positive guys (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV-negative men (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). Backpage escorts closest to Wantirna South. The result of online dating on UAI became more powerful (and important) for HIV-unaware men (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ).
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more likely to happen in online than in offline partnerships (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was firmly correlated with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). Backpage Escorts near Wantirna South, Victoria. The result of dating place on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the organization of online dating using three different reference types, one for each HIV status. Among HIV positive men, UAI was more common in online when compared with offline partnerships (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV negative guys no association was evident between UAI and internet ventures (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Among HIV-unaware guys, UAI was more common in online in comparison to offline partnerships, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
Characteristics of on-line and offline partners and ventures are revealed in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more online partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of online partners was more frequently reported as understood (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in online partnerships, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their online partners more frequently understood the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. Backpage escorts near Wantirna South. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more frequently reported multiple sexual contacts with online partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-related substance use, alcohol use, and group sex were less often reported with internet partners. Wantirna South, VIC Backpage Escorts.
In order to analyze the potential mediating effect of more info on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three variant models. In version 1, we adapted the association between online/offline dating place and UAI for features of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the venture features (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In model 3, we adjusted also for venture sexual risk behaviour (i.e., sex-associated drug use and sex frequency) and partnership kind (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating place for HIV-positive, HIV negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating location was included in all three models by making a new six-category variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented separately for HIV negative, HIV positive, and HIV-oblivious guys. We performed a sensitivity analysis confined to partnerships in which just one sexual contact occurred. Backpage Escorts nearest Wantirna South. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to lose potentially significant associations. As a rather big number of statistical evaluations were done and reported, this approach does lead to a heightened risk of one or more false positive associations. Investigations were done using the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA).
Before the investigations we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variants were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; on-line partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were presumed to be on the causal pathway between the primary exposure of interest and results (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; partnership type; sex frequency within venture; group sex with partner; sex-associated substance use in partnership).
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-tests for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared characteristics of participants, partners, and partnership sexual conduct by online or offline partnership, and calculated P values based on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for correlated data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, number of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between dating place (online versus offline) and UAI. Odds ratio tests were used to assess the significance of a variable in a model.
In order to explore potential disclosure of HIV status we also asked the participant whether the casual sex partner understood the HIV status of the participant, with the response choices: (1) no, (2) perhaps, (3) yes. Sexual conduct with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or only shielded anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To discover the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to at least one of the following subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, substitute, drag, leather, military, sports, fashionable, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if not one of these features were related, other. Backpage escorts closest to Wantirna South, Victoria. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Casual partner type was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
HIV status of the participant was got by asking the question 'Do you know whether you're HIV infected?', with five answer choices: (1) I 'm definitely not HIV-infected; (2) I think that I'm not HIV-contaminated; (3) I do not understand; (4) I believe I may be HIV-infected; (5) I know for sure that I am HIV-contaminated. We categorised this into HIV negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV-positive (4,5) status. The survey enquired about the HIV status of each sex partner with the question: 'Do you understand whether this partner is HIV-contaminated?' with similar response alternatives as previously. Perceived concordance in HIV status within ventures was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The last class represents all partnerships where the participant didn't understand his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous questionnaire during their visit to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary test results after their consultation with a nurse or physician. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and data on sexual behavior with those partners. A comprehensive description of the study design and also the questionnaire is provided elsewhere 15 , 18 Our main determinant of interest, dating location (e.g., the name of a pub, park, club, or the name of a web site) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into on-line (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating places. Backpage Escorts nearest Wantirna South, VIC Australia. To simplify the language of recognizing the partners per dating location, we refer to them as online or offline partners.
We used data from a cross sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and may understand written Dutch or English. Individuals could participate more than once, if following visits to the practice were related to a potential new STI episode. Participants were regularly screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Backpage escorts near Wantirna South, Victoria. Included in this analysis were men who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline.
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