In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no evidence that online dating was independently associated with a higher risk of UAI than offline dating. For HIV negative guys this dearth of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV-positive guys there was a non-significant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Just among men who indicated they were not informed of their HIV status (a small group in this study), UAI was more common with on-line than offline associates. Backpage Escorts closest to Murdoch Western Australia.
The amount of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was also correlated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had happened in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the venture compared to only one sex act). Other variables significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the partnership, and sex-related multiple drug use within partnership.
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), additionally including variants concerning sexual behaviour in the venture (sex-associated multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner type), the independent effect of online dating location on UAI became somewhat stronger (though not essential) for the HIV positive guys (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV-negative guys (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The effect of online dating on UAI became stronger (and essential) for HIV-oblivious men (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ). Backpage escorts near Murdoch.
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more likely to occur in online than in offline partnerships (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was strongly connected with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The result of dating location on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the organization of online dating using three distinct reference groups, one for each HIV status. Among HIV-positive men, UAI was more common in online in comparison to offline partnerships (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV negative men no association was apparent between UAI and on-line ventures (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Among HIV-unaware men, UAI was more common in online when compared with offline ventures, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
Backpage escorts near me WA. Characteristics of online and offline partners and partnerships are shown in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more online partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of online partners was more frequently reported as known (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in on-line partnerships, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their on-line partners more frequently knew the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more often reported multiple sexual contacts with internet partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-related material use, alcohol use, and group sex were less frequently reported with online partners.
In order to examine the possible mediating effect of more info on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three multivariable models. In version 1, we adjusted the association between online/offline dating place and UAI for features of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the partnership features (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In model 3, we adapted also for partnership sexual risk behavior (i.e., sex-related drug use and sex frequency) and partnership type (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating place for HIV positive, HIV-negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating location was contained in all three models by making a brand new six-category variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented separately for HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and HIV-oblivious guys. We performed a sensitivity analysis limited to partnerships in which only one sexual contact occurred. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to miss potentially important organizations. As a rather big number of statistical tests were done and reported, this strategy does lead to a higher risk of one or more false positive associations. Evaluations were done utilizing the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA). Backpage Escorts closest to Murdoch.
Backpage Escorts near Murdoch. Before the investigations we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variants were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; on-line partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were assumed to be on the causal pathway between the main exposure of interest and outcome (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; partnership type; sex frequency within partnership; group sex with partner; sex-associated material use in venture).
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-tests for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared features of participants, partners, and partnership sexual behaviour by on-line or offline venture, and calculated P values based on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for correlated data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, amount of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to examine the association between dating place (online versus offline) and UAI. Odds ratio tests were used to assess the value of a variable in a model.
As a way to investigate potential disclosure of HIV status we additionally asked the participant whether the casual sex partner understood the HIV status of the participant, with the response options: (1) no, (2) possibly, (3) yes. Western Australia Backpage Escorts. Sexual behaviour with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or just protected anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To ascertain the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to at least one of the following subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, alternative, drag, leather, military, sports, trendy, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if not one of these characteristics were applicable, other. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Accidental partner sort was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
HIV status of the participant was obtained by asking the question 'Do you know whether you are HIV infected?', with five response choices: (1) I 'm definitely not HIV-infected; (2) I think that I'm not HIV-infected; (3) I do not understand; (4) I think I may be HIV-contaminated; (5) I know for sure that I 'm HIV-infected. We categorised this into HIV negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV positive (4,5) status. Murdoch, WA Backpage Escorts. The questionnaire enquired about the HIV status of each sex partner with all the question: 'Do you understand whether this partner is HIV-contaminated?' with similar response alternatives as above. Perceived concordance in HIV status within ventures was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The last class represents all partnerships where the participant did not know his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous survey throughout their visit to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary evaluation results after their consultation with a nurse or physician. Backpage escorts in Murdoch Western Australia. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and data on sexual behaviour with those partners. A detailed description of the study design as well as the survey is provided elsewhere 15 , 18 Our primary determinant of interest, dating place (e.g., the name of a pub, park, club, or the name of a web site) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into on-line (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating places. To simplify the language of distinguishing the partners per dating location, we refer to them as online or offline partners.
We used data from a cross-sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and may comprehend written Dutch or English. Individuals could participate more than once, if subsequent visits to the clinic were related to a potential new STI episode. Participants were regularly screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was accepted by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Contained in this analysis were men who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline. Backpage escorts near Murdoch, Australia.
With increased familiarity in sexual partnerships, for example by concordant ethnicity, age, lifestyle, HIV status, and raising sex frequency, the odds for UAI increase as well 14 - 16 We compared the occurrence of UAI in online acquired casual partnerships to that in offline got casual partnerships among MSM who reported both online and offline casual partners in the preceding six months. Backpage Escorts nearest Murdoch Western Australia. We hypothesised that MSM who date sex partners both online and offline, report more UAI with the casual partners they date online, and that this effect is partly explained through better knowledge of partner features, including HIV status.
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