In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no evidence that online dating was independently related to a higher danger of UAI than offline dating. For HIV negative guys this lack of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV-positive guys there was a nonsignificant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Simply among guys who suggested they weren't conscious of their HIV status (a small group in this study), UAI was more common with on-line than offline associates. Cheap hookers near Bateau Bay New South Wales.
The number of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was also correlated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had happened in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the venture compared to only one sex act). Other variables significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the partnership, and sex-related multiple drug use within partnership.
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), additionally including variants concerning sexual behaviour in the partnership (sex-related multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner type), the independent effect of online dating place on UAI became somewhat more powerful (though not critical) for the HIV positive men (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV-negative guys (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The effect of online dating on UAI became more powerful (and important) for HIV-oblivious guys (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ). Cheap Hookers in Bateau Bay.
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more prone to occur in on-line than in offline ventures (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was firmly connected with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The result of dating place on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the organization of online dating using three different reference types, one for each HIV status. Among HIV positive men, UAI was more common in online compared to offline ventures (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV-negative men no association was apparent between UAI and online ventures (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Among HIV-oblivious guys, UAI was more common in online in comparison to offline partnerships, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
Cheap hookers in NSW. Features of on-line and offline partners and partnerships are revealed in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more online partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of online partners was more frequently reported as known (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in on-line partnerships, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their on-line partners more often understood the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more often reported multiple sexual contacts with internet partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-related material use, alcohol use, and group sex were less frequently reported with internet partners.
To be able to analyze the possible mediating effect of more information on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three variant models. In version 1, we adjusted the association between online/offline dating location and UAI for characteristics of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the partnership characteristics (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In version 3, we adjusted additionally for venture sexual risk behaviour (i.e., sex-associated drug use and sex frequency) and partnership sort (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating place for HIV positive, HIV-negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating location was contained in all three models by making a new six-class variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented individually for HIV negative, HIV positive, and HIV-unaware men. We performed a sensitivity analysis restricted to partnerships in which just one sexual contact occurred. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to miss potentially important associations. As a rather large number of statistical tests were done and reported, this approach does lead to an elevated danger of one or more false positive organizations. Evaluations were done using the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA). Cheap Hookers nearest Bateau Bay.
Cheap Hookers closest to Bateau Bay. Before the analyses we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variants were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; on-line partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were presumed to be on the causal pathway between the principal exposure of interest and results (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; venture type; sex frequency within venture; group sex with partner; sex-related substance use in partnership).
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-tests for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared features of participants, partners, and partnership sexual behavior by online or offline venture, and computed P values predicated on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for linked data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, number of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between dating location (online versus offline) and UAI. Likelihood ratio tests were used to measure the importance of a variable in a model.
In order to investigate potential disclosure of HIV status we additionally asked the participant whether the casual sex partner understood the HIV status of the participant, together with the reply options: (1) no, (2) potentially, (3) yes. New South Wales Cheap Hookers. Sexual conduct with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or merely protected anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To ascertain the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to at least one of the subsequent subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, alternate, drag, leather, military, sports, fashionable, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if none of these characteristics were applicable, other. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Casual partner kind was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
HIV status of the participant was got by asking the question 'Do you understand whether you are HIV infected?', with five response options: (1) I am certainly not HIV-infected; (2) I believe that I am not HIV-contaminated; (3) I do not understand; (4) I believe I may be HIV-contaminated; (5) I know for sure that I 'm HIV-infected. We categorised this into HIV negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV positive (4,5) status. Bateau Bay NSW cheap hookers. The questionnaire enquired about the HIV status of each sex partner with all the question: 'Do you know whether this partner is HIV-contaminated?' with similar reply options as above. Perceived concordance in HIV status within partnerships was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The final category represents all partnerships where the participant did not know his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous survey during their trip to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary test results after their consultation with a nurse or doctor. Cheap hookers near me Bateau Bay New South Wales. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and information on sexual behaviour with those partners. A detailed description of the study design and the questionnaire is supplied elsewhere 15 , 18 Our chief determinant of interest, dating place (e.g., the name of a bar, park, club, or the name of a website) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into on-line (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating places. To simplify the terminology of recognizing the partners per dating location, we refer to them as online or offline partners.
We used data from a cross sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and could comprehend written Dutch or English. People could participate more than once, if following visits to the practice were related to a possible new STI episode. Participants were regularly screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Contained in this analysis were guys who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline. Cheap hookers closest to Bateau Bay, Australia.
With increased familiarity in sexual partnerships, for example by concordant ethnicity, age, lifestyle, HIV status, and raising sex frequency, the odds for UAI increase as well 14 - 16 We compared the occurrence of UAI in online acquired casual partnerships to that in offline acquired casual partnerships among MSM who reported both online and offline casual partners in the preceding six months. Cheap Hookers nearest Bateau Bay New South Wales. We hypothesised that MSM who date sex partners both online and offline, report more UAI with the casual partners they date online, and that this effect is partly explained through better knowledge of partner features, including HIV status.
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