In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no signs that online dating was independently associated with a higher danger of UAI than offline dating. For HIV negative guys this dearth of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV-positive guys there was a non-significant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Simply among men who indicated they were not aware of their HIV status (a small group in this study), UAI was more common with on-line than offline partners. Cheap hookers in Clayfield Queensland.
The amount of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was likewise connected with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had happened in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the partnership compared to just one sex act). Other variables significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the venture, and sex-connected multiple drug use within venture.
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), additionally including variants concerning sexual behaviour in the partnership (sex-related multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner kind), the separate effect of online dating location on UAI became somewhat stronger (though not essential) for the HIV-positive men (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV-negative guys (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The effect of online dating on UAI became stronger (and significant) for HIV-oblivious men (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ). Cheap hookers nearby Clayfield.
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more prone to happen in on-line than in offline partnerships (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was strongly associated with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The result of dating place on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the association of online dating using three distinct reference types, one for each HIV status. Among HIV positive guys, UAI was more common in online compared to offline partnerships (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV negative guys no association was evident between UAI and internet ventures (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Among HIV-unaware guys, UAI was more common in online when compared with offline ventures, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
Cheap Hookers nearest QLD. Characteristics of on-line and offline partners and ventures are revealed in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more on-line partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of on-line partners was more often reported as known (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in online ventures, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their on-line partners more frequently knew the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more often reported multiple sexual contacts with internet partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-associated material use, alcohol use, and group sex were less frequently reported with online partners.
To be able to examine the possible mediating effect of more information on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three variant models. In model 1, we adjusted the association between online/offline dating place and UAI for characteristics of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the venture features (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In model 3, we adapted also for venture sexual risk behaviour (i.e., sex-associated drug use and sex frequency) and partnership type (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating place for HIV-positive, HIV negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating location was included in all three models by making a brand new six-class variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented individually for HIV negative, HIV positive, and HIV-unaware men. We performed a sensitivity analysis limited to partnerships in which just one sexual contact occurred. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to miss potentially significant associations. As a rather big number of statistical tests were done and reported, this approach does lead to a heightened risk of one or more false positive associations. Investigations were done utilizing the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA). Cheap Hookers in Clayfield.
Cheap hookers near Clayfield. Before the evaluations we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variables were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; online partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were assumed to be on the causal pathway between the main exposure of interest and outcome (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; venture type; sex frequency within venture; group sex with partner; sex-related substance use in partnership).
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-tests for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared characteristics of participants, partners, and partnership sexual behavior by on-line or offline venture, and calculated P values predicated on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for correlated data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, number of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to examine the association between dating place (online versus offline) and UAI. Odds ratio tests were used to gauge the value of a variable in a model.
As a way to explore potential disclosure of HIV status we additionally asked the participant whether the casual sex partner knew the HIV status of the participant, together with the reply choices: (1) no, (2) perhaps, (3) yes. Queensland cheap hookers. Sexual conduct with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or merely shielded anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To ascertain the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to at least one of the subsequent subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, substitute, drag, leather, military, sports, trendy, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if none of these features were appropriate, other. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Accidental partner type was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
HIV status of the participant was obtained by asking the question 'Do you understand whether you're HIV infected?', with five response options: (1) I 'm definitely not HIV-contaminated; (2) I believe that I'm not HIV-contaminated; (3) I do not understand; (4) I believe I may be HIV-infected; (5) I know for sure that I 'm HIV-contaminated. We categorised this into HIV negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV positive (4,5) status. Clayfield QLD Cheap Hookers. The questionnaire enquired about the HIV status of every sex partner together with the question: 'Do you understand whether this partner is HIV-infected?' with similar answer options as previously. Perceived concordance in HIV status within partnerships was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The final class represents all partnerships where the participant did not understand his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous questionnaire during their visit to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary test results after their consultation with a nurse or physician. Cheap hookers near Clayfield, Queensland. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and data on sexual behaviour with those partners. A thorough description of the study design as well as the survey is provided elsewhere 15 , 18 Our main determinant of interest, dating place (e.g., the name of a bar, park, club, or the name of a website) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into on-line (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating places. To simplify the language of recognizing the partners per dating location, we refer to them as online or offline partners.
We used data from a cross sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and might comprehend written Dutch or English. People could participate more than once, if subsequent visits to the clinic were related to a possible new STI episode. Participants were routinely screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Included in this analysis were men who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline. Cheap Hookers in Clayfield, Australia.
With increased acquaintance in sexual partnerships, for example by concordant ethnicity, age, lifestyle, HIV status, and increasing sex frequency, the chances for UAI increase as well 14 - 16 We compared the incidence of UAI in online got casual partnerships to that in offline obtained casual partnerships among MSM who reported both on-line and offline casual partners in the preceding six months. Cheap Hookers in Clayfield, Queensland. We hypothesised that MSM who date sex partners both online and offline, report more UAI with the casual partners they date online, and that this effect is partly clarified through better understanding of partner characteristics, including HIV status.
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