In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no evidence that online dating was independently related to a higher risk of UAI than offline dating. For HIV-negative men this lack of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV positive men there was a non-significant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Simply among men who indicated they weren't informed of their HIV status (a little group in this study), UAI was more common with online than offline associates. Cheap Prostitutes near me Artarmon New South Wales.
The amount of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was likewise associated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had happened in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the venture compared to just one sex act). Other variables significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the partnership, and sex-related multiple drug use within venture.
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), also including variants concerning sexual behaviour in the venture (sex-associated multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner kind), the separate effect of online dating location on UAI became somewhat stronger (though not essential) for the HIV-positive guys (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV negative guys (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The effect of online dating on UAI became more powerful (and significant) for HIV-unaware men (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ). Cheap prostitutes near me Artarmon.
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more inclined to occur in online than in offline partnerships (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was firmly associated with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The effect of dating place on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the organization of online dating using three different reference types, one for each HIV status. Among HIV positive men, UAI was more common in online when compared with offline partnerships (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV negative guys no association was apparent between UAI and online ventures (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Among HIV-oblivious men, UAI was more common in online in comparison to offline partnerships, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
Cheap Prostitutes closest to NSW. Characteristics of on-line and offline partners and ventures are shown in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more on-line partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of on-line partners was more frequently reported as known (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in on-line ventures, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their online partners more often understood the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more frequently reported multiple sexual contacts with internet partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-associated material use, alcohol use, and group sex were less frequently reported with internet partners.
In order to examine the potential mediating effect of more info on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three variant models. In model 1, we adjusted the association between online/offline dating place and UAI for features of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the partnership characteristics (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In version 3, we adapted also for partnership sexual risk behaviour (i.e., sex-related drug use and sex frequency) and venture kind (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating place for HIV-positive, HIV-negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating place was included in all three models by making a fresh six-category variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented individually for HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and HIV-unaware men. We performed a sensitivity analysis confined to partnerships in which only one sexual contact occurred. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to lose potentially significant organizations. As a rather large number of statistical evaluations were done and reported, this approach does lead to a higher danger of one or more false-positive associations. Analyses were done utilizing the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA). Cheap prostitutes in Artarmon.
Cheap Prostitutes near Artarmon. Prior to the analyses we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variables were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; on-line partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were presumed to be on the causal pathway between the primary exposure of interest and results (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; partnership kind; sex frequency within venture; group sex with partner; sex-related material use in partnership).
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-evaluations for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared characteristics of participants, partners, and venture sexual behaviour by on-line or offline venture, and computed P values based on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for correlated data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, amount of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between dating place (online versus offline) and UAI. Odds ratio tests were used to gauge the value of a variable in a model.
As a way to explore possible disclosure of HIV status we also asked the participant whether the casual sex partner knew the HIV status of the participant, with the answer choices: (1) no, (2) maybe, (3) yes. New South Wales cheap prostitutes. Sexual conduct with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or just protected anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To discover the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to at least one of the subsequent subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, alternative, drag, leather, military, sports, fashionable, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if none of these features were related, other. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Chance partner type was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
HIV status of the participant was obtained by asking the question 'Do you understand whether you are HIV infected?', with five response choices: (1) I 'm definitely not HIV-infected; (2) I think that I'm not HIV-contaminated; (3) I do not know; (4) I believe I may be HIV-infected; (5) I know for sure that I am HIV-infected. We categorised this into HIV-negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV-positive (4,5) status. Artarmon, NSW cheap prostitutes. The survey enquired about the HIV status of each sex partner with all the question: 'Do you understand whether this partner is HIV-infected?' with similar reply choices as previously. Perceived concordance in HIV status within ventures was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The final class represents all partnerships where the participant didn't understand his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous questionnaire during their visit to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary test results after their consultation using a nurse or doctor. Cheap Prostitutes near Artarmon New South Wales. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and data on sexual behavior with those partners. A comprehensive description of the study design and also the questionnaire is provided elsewhere 15 , 18 Our chief determinant of interest, dating place (e.g., the name of a bar, park, club, or the name of a web site) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into online (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating locations. To simplify the language of distinguishing the partners per dating location, we refer to them as online or offline partners.
We used data from a cross sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and could understand written Dutch or English. Individuals could participate more than once, if following visits to the clinic were related to a potential new STI episode. Participants were routinely screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was accepted by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Contained in this investigation were men who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline. Cheap prostitutes near me Artarmon Australia.
With increased familiarity in sexual partnerships, for example by concordant ethnicity, age, lifestyle, HIV status, and raising sex frequency, the likelihood for UAI increase as well 14 - 16 We compared the occurrence of UAI in online got casual partnerships to that in offline obtained casual partnerships among MSM who reported both online and offline casual partners in the preceding six months. Cheap prostitutes nearby Artarmon, New South Wales. We hypothesised that MSM who date sex partners both online and offline, report more UAI with the casual partners they date online, and that this effect is partly explained through better understanding of partner characteristics, including HIV status.
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