In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no evidence that online dating was independently associated with a higher danger of UAI than offline dating. Cheap prostitutes closest to Hamilton Queensland. Hamilton QLD, Australia cheap prostitutes. For HIV negative men this dearth of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV-positive men there was a non-significant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Just among guys who indicated they weren't informed of their HIV status (a little group in this study), UAI was more common with online than offline associates.
The number of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was also associated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had occurred in the venture (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the venture compared to only one sex act). Other variables significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the partnership, and sex-related multiple drug use within partnership.
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), additionally including variants concerning sexual behaviour in the venture (sex-related multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner kind), the separate effect of online dating location on UAI became somewhat more powerful (though not critical) for the HIV-positive guys (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV negative men (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). Cheap prostitutes nearest Hamilton. The effect of online dating on UAI became more powerful (and significant) for HIV-oblivious men (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ).
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more inclined to happen in on-line than in offline ventures (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was strongly associated with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). Cheap prostitutes nearby Hamilton, Queensland. The impact of dating location on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the organization of online dating using three different reference types, one for each HIV status. Among HIV positive guys, UAI was more common in online compared to offline partnerships (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV-negative men no association was evident between UAI and online ventures (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Among HIV-oblivious guys, UAI was more common in online in comparison to offline partnerships, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
Features of online and offline partners and ventures are revealed in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more on-line partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of online partners was more frequently reported as understood (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in online ventures, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their online partners more frequently understood the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. Cheap prostitutes in Hamilton. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more often reported multiple sexual contacts with online partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-associated material use, alcohol use, and group sex were less often reported with internet partners. Hamilton, QLD Cheap Prostitutes.
In order to examine the possible mediating effect of more info on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three variant models. In version 1, we adjusted the organization between online/offline dating place and UAI for characteristics of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the partnership features (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In model 3, we adjusted also for venture sexual risk behaviour (i.e., sex-associated drug use and sex frequency) and partnership sort (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating place for HIV-positive, HIV-negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating place was contained in all three models by making a brand new six-class variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented separately for HIV-negative, HIV-positive, and HIV-unaware guys. We performed a sensitivity analysis restricted to partnerships in which just one sexual contact occurred. Cheap prostitutes near me Hamilton. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to miss potentially important associations. As a fairly big number of statistical evaluations were done and reported, this approach does lead to a heightened risk of one or more false-positive associations. Investigations were done using the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA).
Prior to the investigations we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variants were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; online partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were assumed to be on the causal pathway between the principal exposure of interest and outcome (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; partnership sort; sex frequency within partnership; group sex with partner; sex-related substance use in venture).
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-evaluations for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared characteristics of participants, partners, and partnership sexual behavior by online or offline venture, and computed P values based on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for linked data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, number of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between dating place (online versus offline) and UAI. Likelihood ratio tests were used to gauge the importance of a variable in a model.
To be able to explore possible disclosure of HIV status we additionally asked the participant whether the casual sex partner understood the HIV status of the participant, with the answer options: (1) no, (2) possibly, (3) yes. Sexual conduct with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or simply shielded anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To ascertain the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to one or more of the following subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, alternative, drag, leather, military, sports, fashionable, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if none of these features were appropriate, other. Cheap prostitutes in Hamilton, Queensland. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Chance partner type was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
HIV status of the participant was got by asking the question 'Do you understand whether you are HIV infected?', with five answer choices: (1) I 'm certainly not HIV-contaminated; (2) I believe that I'm not HIV-contaminated; (3) I do not know; (4) I believe I may be HIV-infected; (5) I know for sure that I am HIV-contaminated. We categorised this into HIV negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV-positive (4,5) status. The questionnaire enquired about the HIV status of every sex partner together with the question: 'Do you know whether this partner is HIV-infected?' with similar response alternatives as above. Perceived concordance in HIV status within partnerships was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The final group represents all partnerships where the participant did not know his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous survey throughout their trip to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary test results after their consultation using a nurse or physician. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and data on sexual behavior with those partners. A comprehensive description of the study design and the survey is provided elsewhere 15 , 18 Our primary determinant of interest, dating place (e.g., the name of a bar, park, club, or the name of a web site) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into on-line (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating places. Cheap Prostitutes in Hamilton QLD, Australia. To simplify the terminology of recognizing the partners per dating place, we refer to them as on-line or offline partners.
We used data from a cross-sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and may understand written Dutch or English. Individuals could participate more than once, if subsequent visits to the clinic were related to a potential new STI episode. Participants were routinely screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was accepted by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Cheap Prostitutes closest to Hamilton Queensland. Included in this investigation were guys who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline.
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