In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no signs that online dating was independently associated with a higher risk of UAI than offline dating. Cheap Prostitutes in Taigum Queensland. Taigum QLD Australia Cheap Prostitutes. For HIV negative men this dearth of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV-positive men there was a non-significant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Just among guys who suggested they weren't aware of their HIV status (a small group in this study), UAI was more common with on-line than offline associates.
The amount of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was likewise associated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had occurred in the venture (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the partnership compared to only one sex act). Other variables significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the partnership, and sex-connected multiple drug use within venture.
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), also including variables concerning sexual behaviour in the partnership (sex-related multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner kind), the independent effect of online dating place on UAI became somewhat stronger (though not critical) for the HIV positive men (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV-negative men (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). Cheap Prostitutes closest to Taigum. The result of online dating on UAI became more powerful (and important) for HIV-oblivious guys (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ).
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more inclined to occur in online than in offline partnerships (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was firmly associated with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). Cheap prostitutes nearby Taigum Queensland. The result of dating location on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the organization of online dating using three distinct reference types, one for each HIV status. Among HIV-positive guys, UAI was more common in online compared to offline ventures (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV negative guys no association was apparent between UAI and on-line partnerships (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Among HIV-unaware men, UAI was more common in online when compared with offline ventures, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
Characteristics of on-line and offline partners and ventures are shown in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more on-line partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of online partners was more frequently reported as understood (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in online partnerships, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their online partners more frequently knew the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. Cheap prostitutes nearby Taigum. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more frequently reported multiple sexual contacts with online partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-associated material use, alcohol use, and group sex were less often reported with online partners. Taigum QLD cheap prostitutes.
To be able to examine the possible mediating effect of more info on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three multivariable models. In model 1, we adapted the organization between online/offline dating place and UAI for characteristics of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the venture characteristics (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In model 3, we adjusted also for venture sexual risk behaviour (i.e., sex-associated drug use and sex frequency) and partnership sort (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating place for HIV-positive, HIV negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating place was contained in all three models by making a brand new six-category variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented separately for HIV-negative, HIV positive, and HIV-unaware men. We performed a sensitivity analysis limited to partnerships in which just one sexual contact occurred. Cheap prostitutes nearest Taigum. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to miss potentially significant organizations. As a rather big number of statistical tests were done and reported, this approach does lead to an increased risk of one or more false positive associations. Analyses were done utilizing the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA).
Prior to the analyses we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variants were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; on-line partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were supposed to be on the causal pathway between the principal exposure of interest and result (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; partnership type; sex frequency within partnership; group sex with partner; sex-related substance use in partnership).
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-tests for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared features of participants, partners, and venture sexual behaviour by on-line or offline partnership, and computed P values predicated on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for related data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, number of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to examine the association between dating place (online versus offline) and UAI. Likelihood ratio tests were used to gauge the importance of a variable in a model.
In order to investigate possible disclosure of HIV status we also asked the participant whether the casual sex partner understood the HIV status of the participant, together with the response choices: (1) no, (2) possibly, (3) yes. Sexual conduct with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or just protected anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To discover the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to one or more of the subsequent subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, alternative, drag, leather, military, sports, trendy, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if not one of these characteristics were applicable, other. Cheap Prostitutes closest to Taigum, Queensland. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Casual partner type was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
HIV status of the participant was got by asking the question 'Do you understand whether you're HIV infected?', with five answer choices: (1) I am certainly not HIV-contaminated; (2) I believe that I am not HIV-infected; (3) I don't know; (4) I believe I may be HIV-infected; (5) I know for sure that I am HIV-contaminated. We categorised this into HIV negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV-positive (4,5) status. The questionnaire enquired about the HIV status of each sex partner together with the question: 'Do you understand whether this partner is HIV-infected?' with similar reply alternatives as above. Perceived concordance in HIV status within ventures was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The last group represents all partnerships where the participant didn't know his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous survey throughout their visit to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary test results after their consultation with a nurse or physician. The survey elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and information on sexual behaviour with those partners. A comprehensive description of the study design as well as the survey is supplied elsewhere 15 , 18 Our primary determinant of interest, dating location (e.g., the name of a pub, park, club, or the name of a web site) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into online (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating locations. Cheap prostitutes near Taigum QLD Australia. To simplify the terminology of distinguishing the partners per dating place, we refer to them as on-line or offline partners.
We used data from a cross-sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and could understand written Dutch or English. Individuals could participate more than once, if following visits to the clinic were related to a potential new STI episode. Participants were regularly screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was accepted by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Cheap prostitutes near Taigum, Queensland. Included in this investigation were men who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline.
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