In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no signs that online dating was independently related to a higher risk of UAI than offline dating. For HIV negative guys this dearth of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV positive guys there was a nonsignificant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Only among guys who suggested they were not informed of their HIV status (a small group in this study), UAI was more common with online than offline partners. Cheap prostitutes near Waterford Western Australia.
The amount of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was also correlated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had occurred in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the venture compared to only one sex act). Other factors significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the venture, and sex-related multiple drug use within venture.
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), also including variables concerning sexual behavior in the venture (sex-related multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner type), the separate effect of online dating location on UAI became somewhat stronger (though not critical) for the HIV positive guys (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV negative men (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The result of online dating on UAI became more powerful (and significant) for HIV-unaware guys (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ). Cheap Prostitutes closest to Waterford.
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more inclined to happen in online than in offline partnerships (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was firmly associated with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The result of dating place on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the organization of online dating using three distinct reference categories, one for each HIV status. Among HIV positive guys, UAI was more common in online compared to offline ventures (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV negative men no association was evident between UAI and on-line partnerships (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Among HIV-oblivious men, UAI was more common in online compared to offline ventures, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
Cheap Prostitutes nearby WA. Features of online and offline partners and partnerships are revealed in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more on-line partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of online partners was more frequently reported as known (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in on-line partnerships, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their online partners more often knew the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more often reported multiple sexual contacts with internet partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-related substance use, alcohol use, and group sex were less often reported with internet partners.
In order to analyze the possible mediating effect of more info on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three variant models. In model 1, we adapted the association between online/offline dating location and UAI for features of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the partnership characteristics (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In version 3, we adjusted also for partnership sexual risk behavior (i.e., sex-associated drug use and sex frequency) and partnership type (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating place for HIV positive, HIV negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating place was contained in all three models by making a fresh six-category variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented separately for HIV negative, HIV-positive, and HIV-unaware guys. We performed a sensitivity analysis restricted to partnerships in which just one sexual contact occurred. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to miss potentially significant associations. As a fairly large number of statistical tests were done and reported, this strategy does lead to an increased danger of one or more false positive organizations. Investigations were done utilizing the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA). Cheap Prostitutes nearest Waterford.
Cheap prostitutes in Waterford. Prior to the evaluations we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variables were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; online partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were supposed to be on the causal pathway between the principal exposure of interest and result (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; partnership kind; sex frequency within partnership; group sex with partner; sex-associated material use in partnership).
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-tests for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared features of participants, partners, and venture sexual behavior by on-line or offline venture, and calculated P values based on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for linked data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, number of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between dating place (online versus offline) and UAI. Likelihood ratio tests were used to assess the importance of a variable in a model.
To be able to investigate potential disclosure of HIV status we additionally asked the participant whether the casual sex partner understood the HIV status of the participant, together with the response options: (1) no, (2) perhaps, (3) yes. Western Australia cheap prostitutes. Sexual behaviour with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or merely protected anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To discover the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to at least one of the subsequent subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, alternate, drag, leather, military, sports, trendy, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if not one of these features were appropriate, other. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Casual partner sort was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
HIV status of the participant was got by asking the question 'Do you understand whether you are HIV infected?', with five response choices: (1) I 'm certainly not HIV-contaminated; (2) I think that I am not HIV-contaminated; (3) I don't understand; (4) I believe I may be HIV-contaminated; (5) I know for sure that I 'm HIV-contaminated. We categorised this into HIV-negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV positive (4,5) status. Waterford, WA Cheap Prostitutes. The survey enquired about the HIV status of each sex partner together with the question: 'Do you understand whether this partner is HIV-contaminated?' with similar reply alternatives as previously. Perceived concordance in HIV status within partnerships was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The last category represents all partnerships where the participant didn't understand his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous questionnaire throughout their trip to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary test results after their consultation using a nurse or doctor. Cheap Prostitutes nearest Waterford, Western Australia. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and data on sexual behavior with those partners. A detailed description of the study design and also the survey is supplied elsewhere 15 , 18 Our primary determinant of interest, dating location (e.g., the name of a bar, park, club, or the name of a website) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into on-line (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating locations. To simplify the terminology of differentiating the partners per dating location, we refer to them as on-line or offline partners.
We used data from a cross sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and could understand written Dutch or English. Individuals could participate more than once, if following visits to the clinic were related to a possible new STI episode. Participants were regularly screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was accepted by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Included in this analysis were guys who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline. Cheap Prostitutes in Waterford Australia.
With increased familiarity in sexual partnerships, for example by concordant ethnicity, age, lifestyle, HIV status, and increasing sex frequency, the chances for UAI increase as well 14 - 16 We compared the occurrence of UAI in online acquired casual partnerships to that in offline got casual partnerships among MSM who reported both on-line and offline casual partners in the preceding six months. Cheap prostitutes near me Waterford, Western Australia. We hypothesised that MSM who date sex partners both online and offline, report more UAI with the casual partners they date online, and that this effect is partly explained through better knowledge of partner features, including HIV status.
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