In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no evidence that online dating was independently associated with a higher risk of UAI than offline dating. Sluts near me Moorebank New South Wales. Moorebank NSW, Australia Sluts. For HIV negative guys this dearth of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV positive guys there was a non significant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Just among men who indicated they weren't conscious of their HIV status (a little group in this study), UAI was more common with online than offline partners.
The amount of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was also connected with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had happened in the venture (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the venture compared to only one sex act). Other variables significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the partnership, and sex-connected multiple drug use within partnership.
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), additionally including variables concerning sexual behaviour in the partnership (sex-associated multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner kind), the separate effect of online dating location on UAI became somewhat more powerful (though not critical) for the HIV-positive guys (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV negative guys (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). Sluts in Moorebank. The effect of online dating on UAI became stronger (and critical) for HIV-unaware guys (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ).
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more inclined to occur in online than in offline ventures (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was strongly associated with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). Sluts near me Moorebank New South Wales. The effect of dating location on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the association of online dating using three different reference groups, one for each HIV status. Among HIV-positive guys, UAI was more common in online when compared with offline partnerships (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV-negative men no association was apparent between UAI and online ventures (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Among HIV-oblivious guys, UAI was more common in online in comparison to offline ventures, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
Characteristics of on-line and offline partners and ventures are shown in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more on-line partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of online partners was more frequently reported as understood (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in on-line partnerships, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their online partners more frequently understood the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. Sluts in Moorebank. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more often reported multiple sexual contacts with online partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-related material use, alcohol use, and group sex were less often reported with online partners. Moorebank NSW Sluts.
To be able to examine the possible mediating effect of more information on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three variant models. In model 1, we adjusted the organization between online/offline dating place and UAI for features of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the partnership characteristics (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In model 3, we adjusted also for venture sexual risk behavior (i.e., sex-related drug use and sex frequency) and partnership type (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating location for HIV-positive, HIV-negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating place was included in all three models by making a fresh six-class variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented separately for HIV-negative, HIV positive, and HIV-oblivious guys. We performed a sensitivity analysis limited to partnerships in which only one sexual contact occurred. Sluts nearby Moorebank. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to lose potentially significant associations. As a fairly big number of statistical tests were done and reported, this approach does lead to a higher risk of one or more false positive associations. Investigations were done using the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA).
Prior to the evaluations we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variants were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; on-line partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were presumed to be on the causal pathway between the primary exposure of interest and result (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; partnership sort; sex frequency within venture; group sex with partner; sex-related substance use in venture).
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-evaluations for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared features of participants, partners, and venture sexual behaviour by on-line or offline venture, and calculated P values predicated on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for correlated data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, amount of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to examine the association between dating location (online versus offline) and UAI. Likelihood ratio tests were used to measure the importance of a variable in a model.
To be able to investigate possible disclosure of HIV status we additionally asked the participant whether the casual sex partner knew the HIV status of the participant, together with the reply alternatives: (1) no, (2) maybe, (3) yes. Sexual conduct with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or simply protected anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To ascertain the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to one or more of the following subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, alternate, drag, leather, military, sports, trendy, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if not one of these characteristics were appropriate, other. Sluts nearby Moorebank, New South Wales. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Chance partner type was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
HIV status of the participant was got by asking the question 'Do you know whether you're HIV infected?', with five answer choices: (1) I am definitely not HIV-contaminated; (2) I believe that I'm not HIV-infected; (3) I don't know; (4) I think I may be HIV-infected; (5) I know for sure that I am HIV-contaminated. We categorised this into HIV negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV-positive (4,5) status. The questionnaire enquired about the HIV status of every sex partner with all the question: 'Do you understand whether this partner is HIV-contaminated?' with similar response options as above. Perceived concordance in HIV status within partnerships was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The last class represents all partnerships where the participant didn't know his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous survey throughout their visit to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary test results after their consultation with a nurse or physician. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and data on sexual behavior with those partners. A detailed description of the study design and also the questionnaire is provided elsewhere 15 , 18 Our chief determinant of interest, dating location (e.g., the name of a pub, park, club, or the name of a site) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into online (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating locations. Sluts near me Moorebank, NSW, Australia. To simplify the language of distinguishing the partners per dating location, we refer to them as online or offline partners.
We used data from a cross sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and could understand written Dutch or English. Individuals could participate more than once, if subsequent visits to the clinic were related to a potential new STI episode. Participants were regularly screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Sluts near me Moorebank New South Wales. Contained in this evaluation were guys who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline.
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