In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no signs that online dating was independently associated with a higher danger of UAI than offline dating. Sluts closest to Browns Plains Queensland. Browns Plains QLD Australia sluts. For HIV negative guys this dearth of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV-positive men there was a non significant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Just among men who indicated they were not informed of their HIV status (a small group in this study), UAI was more common with online than offline partners.
The number of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was likewise correlated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had occurred in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the partnership compared to just one sex act). Other variables significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the partnership, and sex-related multiple drug use within partnership.
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), additionally including variables concerning sexual behaviour in the venture (sex-associated multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner kind), the independent effect of online dating place on UAI became somewhat more powerful (though not critical) for the HIV-positive guys (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV negative men (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). Sluts nearest Browns Plains. The result of online dating on UAI became stronger (and essential) for HIV-unaware men (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ).
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more inclined to occur in on-line than in offline ventures (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was strongly associated with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). Sluts in Browns Plains Queensland. The result of dating location on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the association of online dating using three different reference types, one for each HIV status. Among HIV-positive men, UAI was more common in online in comparison to offline ventures (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV-negative men no association was apparent between UAI and online ventures (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Among HIV-oblivious guys, UAI was more common in online when compared with offline ventures, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
Features of online and offline partners and partnerships are revealed in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more on-line partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of online partners was more often reported as known (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in on-line partnerships, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their on-line partners more often knew the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. Sluts near me Browns Plains. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more often reported multiple sexual contacts with online partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-related substance use, alcohol use, and group sex were less frequently reported with online partners. Browns Plains QLD Sluts.
In order to analyze the potential mediating effect of more information on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three variant models. In model 1, we adjusted the organization between online/offline dating place and UAI for features of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the venture characteristics (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In version 3, we adapted also for partnership sexual risk behaviour (i.e., sex-associated drug use and sex frequency) and venture sort (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating location for HIV-positive, HIV negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating location was included in all three models by making a new six-category variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented individually for HIV-negative, HIV positive, and HIV-oblivious men. We performed a sensitivity analysis confined to partnerships in which only one sexual contact occurred. Sluts closest to Browns Plains. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to lose potentially significant organizations. As a rather big number of statistical tests were done and reported, this strategy does lead to an elevated danger of one or more false-positive organizations. Analyses were done utilizing the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA).
Prior to the analyses we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variables were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; online partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were supposed to be on the causal pathway between the main exposure of interest and results (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; partnership sort; sex frequency within venture; group sex with partner; sex-associated substance use in venture).
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-evaluations for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared characteristics of participants, partners, and venture sexual conduct by online or offline venture, and computed P values predicated on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for related data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, amount of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to examine the association between dating location (online versus offline) and UAI. Odds ratio tests were used to assess the value of a variable in a model.
To be able to explore possible disclosure of HIV status we additionally asked the participant whether the casual sex partner understood the HIV status of the participant, together with the reply options: (1) no, (2) perhaps, (3) yes. Sexual behavior with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or just shielded anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To determine the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to at least one of the following subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, substitute, drag, leather, military, sports, trendy, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if not one of these characteristics were appropriate, other. Sluts nearest Browns Plains, Queensland. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Chance partner sort was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
HIV status of the participant was got by asking the question 'Do you know whether you're HIV infected?', with five response options: (1) I am certainly not HIV-contaminated; (2) I believe that I am not HIV-infected; (3) I don't understand; (4) I think I may be HIV-infected; (5) I know for sure that I 'm HIV-infected. We categorised this into HIV-negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV-positive (4,5) status. The questionnaire enquired about the HIV status of each sex partner with the question: 'Do you know whether this partner is HIV-contaminated?' with similar reply alternatives as previously. Perceived concordance in HIV status within ventures was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The last category represents all partnerships where the participant did not know his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous survey throughout their visit to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary evaluation results after their consultation with a nurse or physician. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and information on sexual conduct with those partners. A thorough description of the study design as well as the questionnaire is supplied elsewhere 15 , 18 Our chief determinant of interest, dating place (e.g., the name of a pub, park, club, or the name of a web site) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into on-line (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating places. Sluts closest to Browns Plains QLD, Australia. To simplify the language of differentiating the partners per dating place, we refer to them as online or offline partners.
We used data from a cross sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and might understand written Dutch or English. People could participate more than once, if following visits to the practice were related to a potential new STI episode. Participants were routinely screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Sluts nearest Browns Plains Queensland. Contained in this investigation were guys who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline.
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