In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no signs that online dating was independently associated with a higher risk of UAI than offline dating. For HIV-negative men this dearth of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV-positive guys there was a non significant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Just among men who suggested they weren't informed of their HIV status (a little group in this study), UAI was more common with online than offline associates. Sluts near Browns Plains, Victoria.
The number of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was also associated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had occurred in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the venture compared to just one sex act). Other factors significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the partnership, and sex-connected multiple drug use within venture.
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), additionally including variables concerning sexual behavior in the venture (sex-associated multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner kind), the independent effect of online dating place on UAI became somewhat more powerful (though not critical) for the HIV positive men (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV-negative guys (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The effect of online dating on UAI became more powerful (and significant) for HIV-oblivious guys (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ). Sluts closest to Browns Plains.
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more likely to happen in online than in offline ventures (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was strongly connected with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The impact of dating place on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the organization of online dating using three different reference categories, one for each HIV status. Among HIV positive guys, UAI was more common in online in comparison to offline ventures (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV-negative men no association was evident between UAI and internet ventures (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Among HIV-unaware guys, UAI was more common in online compared to offline partnerships, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
Sluts nearest VIC. Features of on-line and offline partners and partnerships are shown in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more online partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of on-line partners was more frequently reported as understood (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in online partnerships, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their on-line partners more often understood the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more frequently reported multiple sexual contacts with online partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-associated substance use, alcohol use, and group sex were less often reported with online partners.
To be able to analyze the potential mediating effect of more information on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three multivariable models. In model 1, we adapted the association between online/offline dating place and UAI for characteristics of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the partnership features (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In model 3, we adjusted also for partnership sexual risk behavior (i.e., sex-related drug use and sex frequency) and venture kind (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating place for HIV positive, HIV-negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating place was included in all three models by making a new six-class variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented separately for HIV negative, HIV-positive, and HIV-unaware men. We performed a sensitivity analysis restricted to partnerships in which only one sexual contact occurred. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to miss potentially important organizations. As a fairly large number of statistical evaluations were done and reported, this approach does lead to an elevated risk of one or more false-positive organizations. Analyses were done using the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA). Sluts in Browns Plains.
Sluts nearby Browns Plains. Prior to the evaluations we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variants were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; on-line partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were supposed to be on the causal pathway between the primary exposure of interest and results (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; venture type; sex frequency within venture; group sex with partner; sex-related substance use in partnership).
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-tests for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared characteristics of participants, partners, and venture sexual behaviour by on-line or offline partnership, and calculated P values predicated on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for related data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, amount of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between dating location (online versus offline) and UAI. Odds ratio tests were used to gauge the importance of a variable in a model.
As a way to investigate possible disclosure of HIV status we also asked the participant whether the casual sex partner understood the HIV status of the participant, together with the reply alternatives: (1) no, (2) possibly, (3) yes. Victoria sluts. Sexual conduct with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or only protected anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To discover the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to one or more of the following subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, substitute, drag, leather, military, sports, trendy, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if none of these features were related, other. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Chance partner type was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
HIV status of the participant was obtained by asking the question 'Do you know whether you're HIV infected?', with five answer choices: (1) I am definitely not HIV-contaminated; (2) I think that I'm not HIV-contaminated; (3) I don't know; (4) I believe I may be HIV-contaminated; (5) I know for sure that I am HIV-infected. We categorised this into HIV negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV positive (4,5) status. Browns Plains, VIC sluts. The questionnaire enquired about the HIV status of each sex partner with all the question: 'Do you know whether this partner is HIV-contaminated?' with similar reply options as previously. Perceived concordance in HIV status within partnerships was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The last category represents all partnerships where the participant did not understand his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous questionnaire throughout their trip to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary evaluation results after their consultation using a nurse or doctor. Sluts near Browns Plains Victoria. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and data on sexual conduct with those partners. A thorough description of the study design and also the survey is provided elsewhere 15 , 18 Our primary determinant of interest, dating place (e.g., the name of a pub, park, club, or the name of a web site) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into online (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating locations. To simplify the terminology of differentiating the partners per dating place, we refer to them as online or offline partners.
We used data from a cross-sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and might understand written Dutch or English. People could participate more than once, if following visits to the clinic were related to a potential new STI episode. Participants were regularly screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Included in this analysis were men who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline. Sluts nearest Browns Plains Australia.
With increased familiarity in sexual partnerships, for example by concordant ethnicity, age, lifestyle, HIV status, and raising sex frequency, the chances for UAI increase as well 14 - 16 We compared the incidence of UAI in online acquired casual partnerships to that in offline obtained casual partnerships among MSM who reported both on-line and offline casual partners in the preceding six months. Sluts near Browns Plains, Victoria. We hypothesised that MSM who date sex partners both online and offline, report more UAI with the casual partners they date online, and that this effect is partly described through better understanding of partner features, including HIV status.
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