In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no signs that online dating was independently associated with a higher risk of UAI than offline dating. Sluts near me Northcote Victoria. Northcote, VIC, Australia sluts. For HIV negative men this dearth of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV-positive guys there was a non-significant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Only among men who indicated they weren't aware of their HIV status (a little group in this study), UAI was more common with online than offline partners.
The amount of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was likewise correlated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had occurred in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the partnership compared to only one sex act). Other factors significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the partnership, and sex-connected multiple drug use within partnership.
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), also including variants concerning sexual behavior in the venture (sex-related multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner type), the independent effect of online dating place on UAI became somewhat more powerful (though not critical) for the HIV positive men (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV-negative guys (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). Sluts nearby Northcote. The result of online dating on UAI became stronger (and critical) for HIV-unaware guys (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ).
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more prone to occur in online than in offline partnerships (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was strongly correlated with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). Sluts near Northcote, Victoria. The result of dating place on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the organization of online dating using three different reference groups, one for each HIV status. Among HIV-positive guys, UAI was more common in online when compared with offline partnerships (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV negative guys no association was evident between UAI and internet ventures (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Among HIV-oblivious men, UAI was more common in online compared to offline partnerships, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
Features of on-line and offline partners and partnerships are revealed in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more online partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of on-line partners was more frequently reported as known (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in on-line partnerships, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their on-line partners more often understood the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. Sluts near me Northcote. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more frequently reported multiple sexual contacts with online partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-related material use, alcohol use, and group sex were less often reported with online partners. Northcote VIC sluts.
To be able to examine the potential mediating effect of more info on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three multivariable models. In model 1, we adapted the organization between online/offline dating location and UAI for features of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the partnership features (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In version 3, we adapted also for partnership sexual risk behaviour (i.e., sex-related drug use and sex frequency) and partnership type (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating place for HIV-positive, HIV negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating place was included in all three models by making a new six-class variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented individually for HIV negative, HIV-positive, and HIV-unaware men. We performed a sensitivity analysis restricted to partnerships in which just one sexual contact occurred. Sluts near me Northcote. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to miss potentially important associations. As a rather large number of statistical tests were done and reported, this strategy does lead to a higher danger of one or more false-positive associations. Investigations were done utilizing the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA).
Before the investigations we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variants were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; online partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were supposed to be on the causal pathway between the main exposure of interest and results (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; partnership sort; sex frequency within partnership; group sex with partner; sex-related material use in venture).
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-evaluations for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared features of participants, partners, and partnership sexual behavior by on-line or offline partnership, and computed P values predicated on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for correlated data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, amount of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between dating place (online versus offline) and UAI. Likelihood ratio tests were used to gauge the importance of a variable in a model.
As a way to explore possible disclosure of HIV status we also asked the participant whether the casual sex partner understood the HIV status of the participant, together with the reply alternatives: (1) no, (2) perhaps, (3) yes. Sexual conduct with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or simply protected anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To discover the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to at least one of the subsequent subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, alternate, drag, leather, military, sports, trendy, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if none of these features were appropriate, other. Sluts in Northcote, Victoria. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Casual partner kind was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
HIV status of the participant was obtained by asking the question 'Do you know whether you're HIV infected?', with five answer alternatives: (1) I 'm certainly not HIV-contaminated; (2) I believe that I'm not HIV-contaminated; (3) I don't understand; (4) I believe I may be HIV-contaminated; (5) I know for sure that I am HIV-infected. We categorised this into HIV-negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV positive (4,5) status. The survey enquired about the HIV status of each sex partner with all the question: 'Do you understand whether this partner is HIV-contaminated?' with similar reply choices as above. Perceived concordance in HIV status within partnerships was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The final class represents all partnerships where the participant did not understand his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous survey during their visit to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary test results after their consultation with a nurse or doctor. The survey elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and data on sexual conduct with those partners. A detailed description of the study design and the survey is supplied elsewhere 15 , 18 Our chief determinant of interest, dating place (e.g., the name of a pub, park, club, or the name of a site) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into online (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating locations. Sluts near Northcote VIC, Australia. To simplify the terminology of differentiating the partners per dating place, we refer to them as online or offline partners.
We used data from a cross sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and might comprehend written Dutch or English. People could participate more than once, if subsequent visits to the clinic were related to a potential new STI episode. Participants were regularly screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was accepted by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Sluts nearby Northcote Victoria. Included in this evaluation were men who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline.
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