In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no signs that online dating was independently related to a higher risk of UAI than offline dating. For HIV negative men this lack of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV-positive guys there was a non-significant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Only among guys who indicated they weren't aware of their HIV status (a small group in this study), UAI was more common with on-line than offline partners. Cheap Prostitutes near Parklea, New South Wales.
The amount of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was likewise associated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had happened in the venture (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the partnership compared to only one sex act). Other factors significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the venture, and sex-related multiple drug use within partnership.
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), additionally including variables concerning sexual behavior in the venture (sex-related multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner type), the independent effect of online dating location on UAI became somewhat more powerful (though not significant) for the HIV-positive men (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV-negative guys (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The effect of online dating on UAI became stronger (and critical) for HIV-oblivious guys (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ). Cheap prostitutes in Parklea.
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more prone to occur in online than in offline partnerships (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was strongly associated with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The impact of dating location on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the organization of online dating using three different reference classes, one for each HIV status. Among HIV positive men, UAI was more common in online compared to offline partnerships (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV-negative guys no association was evident between UAI and on-line partnerships (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Among HIV-unaware men, UAI was more common in online when compared with offline ventures, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
Cheap Prostitutes nearest NSW. Features of online and offline partners and partnerships are revealed in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more on-line partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of on-line partners was more frequently reported as understood (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in online ventures, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their on-line partners more frequently understood the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more frequently reported multiple sexual contacts with online partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-associated material use, alcohol use, and group sex were less often reported with on-line partners.
In order to examine the possible mediating effect of more information on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three multivariable models. In model 1, we adapted the association between online/offline dating place and UAI for features of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the venture features (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In version 3, we adjusted also for partnership sexual risk behavior (i.e., sex-related drug use and sex frequency) and venture sort (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating location for HIV positive, HIV-negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating location was included in all three models by making a brand new six-category variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented separately for HIV negative, HIV-positive, and HIV-unaware men. We performed a sensitivity analysis limited to partnerships in which only one sexual contact occurred. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to lose potentially important organizations. As a fairly large number of statistical tests were done and reported, this strategy does lead to a higher risk of one or more false-positive organizations. Evaluations were done utilizing the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA). Cheap prostitutes nearby Parklea.
Cheap Prostitutes in Parklea. Before the evaluations we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variants were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; on-line partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were presumed to be on the causal pathway between the primary exposure of interest and outcome (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; venture kind; sex frequency within partnership; group sex with partner; sex-associated material use in venture).
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-tests for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared characteristics of participants, partners, and venture sexual behavior by on-line or offline venture, and computed P values based on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for correlated data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, amount of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between dating place (online versus offline) and UAI. Likelihood ratio tests were used to measure the significance of a variable in a model.
As a way to investigate potential disclosure of HIV status we also asked the participant whether the casual sex partner understood the HIV status of the participant, together with the reply alternatives: (1) no, (2) potentially, (3) yes. New South Wales cheap prostitutes. Sexual behaviour with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or just protected anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To discover the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to at least one of the following subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, alternative, drag, leather, military, sports, fashionable, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if not one of these characteristics were applicable, other. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Accidental partner kind was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
HIV status of the participant was got by asking the question 'Do you understand whether you are HIV infected?', with five answer options: (1) I am certainly not HIV-infected; (2) I think that I am not HIV-contaminated; (3) I don't understand; (4) I think I may be HIV-contaminated; (5) I know for sure that I 'm HIV-contaminated. We categorised this into HIV-negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV-positive (4,5) status. Parklea NSW Cheap Prostitutes. The survey enquired about the HIV status of each sex partner with the question: 'Do you understand whether this partner is HIV-contaminated?' with similar response choices as above. Perceived concordance in HIV status within partnerships was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The final group represents all partnerships where the participant didn't know his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous questionnaire during their trip to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary evaluation results after their consultation with a nurse or physician. Cheap Prostitutes in Parklea New South Wales. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and data on sexual behavior with those partners. A comprehensive description of the study design and also the survey is supplied elsewhere 15 , 18 Our main determinant of interest, dating place (e.g., the name of a pub, park, club, or the name of a web site) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into online (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating locations. To simplify the language of distinguishing the partners per dating location, we refer to them as online or offline partners.
We used data from a cross-sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and might comprehend written Dutch or English. People could participate more than once, if subsequent visits to the clinic were related to a potential new STI episode. Participants were regularly screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was accepted by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Included in this evaluation were guys who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline. Cheap Prostitutes in Parklea Australia.
With increased familiarity in sexual partnerships, for example by concordant ethnicity, age, lifestyle, HIV status, and raising sex frequency, the likelihood for UAI increase as well 14 - 16 We compared the occurrence of UAI in online got casual partnerships to that in offline acquired casual partnerships among MSM who reported both on-line and offline casual partners in the preceding six months. Cheap Prostitutes nearest Parklea, New South Wales. We hypothesised that MSM who date sex partners both online and offline, report more UAI with the casual partners they date on the internet, and that this effect is partially described through better knowledge of partner features, including HIV status.
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