In this large study among MSM attending the STI clinic in Amsterdam, we found no evidence that online dating was independently associated with a higher risk of UAI than offline dating. For HIV negative guys this dearth of assocation was clear (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48); among HIV positive men there was a nonsignificant association between online dating and UAI (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI 0.96-2.72). Only among men who suggested they weren't informed of their HIV status (a small group in this study), UAI was more common with on-line than offline associates. Backpage Escorts nearest Murdoch, Western Australia.
The amount of sex partners in the preceding 6months of the index was likewise correlated with UAI (OR = 6.79 95 % CI 2.86-16.13 for those with 50 or more recent sex partners compared to those with fewer than 5 recent sex partners). UAI was significantly more likely if more sex acts had happened in the partnership (OR = 16.29 95 % CI 7.07-37.52 for >10 sex acts within the venture compared to just one sex act). Other variables significantly associated with UAI were group sex within the venture, and sex-connected multiple drug use within venture.
In multivariate model 3 (Tables 4 and 5 ), additionally including variables concerning sexual behaviour in the venture (sex-associated multiple drug use, sex frequency and partner type), the independent effect of online dating location on UAI became somewhat more powerful (though not essential) for the HIV-positive men (aOR = 1.62 95 % CI; 0.96-2.72), but remained similar for HIV negative guys (aOR = 0.94 95 % CI 0.59-1.48). The result of online dating on UAI became more powerful (and critical) for HIV-oblivious men (aOR = 2.55 95 % CI 1.11-5.86) (Table 5 ). Backpage escorts near Murdoch.
In univariate analysis, UAI was significantly more prone to occur in online than in offline ventures (OR = 1.36 95 % CI 1.03-1.81) (Table 4 ). The self-perceived HIV status of the participant was firmly connected with UAI (OR = 11.70 95 % CI 7.40-18.45). The impact of dating place on UAI differed by HIV status, as can be seen best in Table 5 Table 5 shows the organization of online dating using three different reference types, one for each HIV status. Among HIV positive guys, UAI was more common in online when compared with offline ventures (OR = 1.61 95 % CI 1.03-2.50). Among HIV negative men no association was apparent between UAI and on-line partnerships (OR = 1.07 95 % CI 0.71-1.62). Among HIV-oblivious men, UAI was more common in online when compared with offline ventures, though not statistically significant (OR = 1.65 95 % CI 0.79-3.44).
Backpage Escorts near WA. Characteristics of online and offline partners and ventures are revealed in Table 2 The median age of the partners was 34years (IQR 28-40). Compared to offline partners, more online partners were Dutch (61.3% vs. 54.0%; P 0.001) and were defined as a known partner (77.7% vs. 54.4%; P 0.001). The HIV status of online partners was more frequently reported as understood (61.4% vs. 49.4%; P 0.001), and in online ventures, perceived HIV concordance was higher (49.0% vs. 39.8%; P 0.001). Participants reported that their on-line partners more frequently knew the HIV status of the participant than offline partners (38.8% vs. 27.2%; P 0.001). Participants more frequently reported multiple sexual contacts with online partners (50.9% vs. 41.3%; P 0.001). Sex-associated material use, alcohol use, and group sex were less often reported with internet partners.
To be able to examine the potential mediating effect of more information on partners (including perceived HIV status) on UAI, we developed three variant models. In model 1, we adjusted the association between online/offline dating location and UAI for characteristics of the participant: age, ethnicity, number of sex partners in the preceding 6months, and self-perceived HIV status. In model 2 we added the partnership features (age difference, ethnic concordance, lifestyle concordance, and HIV concordance). In version 3, we adapted also for venture sexual risk behavior (i.e., sex-associated drug use and sex frequency) and venture kind (i.e., casual or anonymous). As we assumed a differential effect of dating place for HIV positive, HIV-negative and HIV status unknown MSM, an interaction between HIV status of the participant and dating place was included in all three models by making a brand new six-category variable. For clarity, the effects of online/offline dating on UAI are also presented separately for HIV-negative, HIV positive, and HIV-unaware men. We performed a sensitivity analysis confined to partnerships in which only one sexual contact occurred. Statistical significance was defined as P 0.05. No adjustments for multiple comparisons were made, in order not to lose potentially significant organizations. As a fairly big number of statistical evaluations were done and reported, this strategy does lead to an elevated danger of one or more false positive associations. Investigations were done using the statistical programme STATA, version 13 (STATA Intercooled, College Station, TX, USA). Backpage escorts in Murdoch.
Backpage escorts near me Murdoch. Before the analyses we developed a directed acyclic graph (DAG) representing a causal model of UAI. In this model some variables were putative causes (self-reported HIV status; on-line partner acquisition), others were considered as confounders (participants' age, participants' ethnicity, and no. of male sex partners in preceding 6months), and some were assumed to be on the causal pathway between the principal exposure of interest and result (age difference between participant and partner; ethnic concordance; concordance in life styles; HIV concordance; partnership kind; sex frequency within venture; group sex with partner; sex-associated material use in partnership).
We compared characteristics of participants by self-reported HIV status (using 2-tests for dichotomous and categorical variables and using rank sum test for continuous variables). We compared characteristics of participants, partners, and partnership sexual behaviour by online or offline venture, and computed P values based on logistic regression with robust standard errors, accounting for related data. Continuous variables (i.e., age, number of sex partners) are reported as medians with an interquartile range (IQR), and were categorised for inclusion in multivariate models. Random effects logistic regression models were used to examine the association between dating place (online versus offline) and UAI. Odds ratio tests were used to evaluate the significance of a variable in a model.
In order to explore possible disclosure of HIV status we additionally asked the participant whether the casual sex partner knew the HIV status of the participant, with the answer options: (1) no, (2) perhaps, (3) yes. Western Australia Backpage Escorts. Sexual conduct with each partner was dichotomised as: (1) no anal intercourse or just shielded anal intercourse, and (2) unprotected anal intercourse. To discover the subculture, we asked whether the participant characterised himself or his partners as belonging to at least one of the following subcultures/lifestyles: casual, formal, substitute, drag, leather, military, sports, trendy, punk/skinhead, rubber/lycra, gothic, bear, jeans, skater, or, if not one of these characteristics were related, other. Concordant lifestyle was categorised as: (1) concordant; (2) discordant. Chance partner type was categorised by the participants into (1) known traceable and (2) anonymous partners.
HIV status of the participant was obtained by asking the question 'Do you understand whether you're HIV infected?', with five response options: (1) I am certainly not HIV-contaminated; (2) I believe that I'm not HIV-infected; (3) I don't understand; (4) I believe I may be HIV-infected; (5) I know for sure that I 'm HIV-contaminated. We categorised this into HIV-negative (1,2), unknown (3), and HIV-positive (4,5) status. Murdoch WA Backpage Escorts. The survey enquired about the HIV status of each sex partner together with the question: 'Do you know whether this partner is HIV-contaminated?' with similar response choices as previously. Perceived concordance in HIV status within partnerships was categorised as; (1) concordant; (2) discordant; (3) unknown. The last class represents all partnerships where the participant did not know his own status, or the status of his partner, or both. In this study the HIV status of the participant is self-reported and self-perceived. The HIV status of the sexual partner is as perceived by the participant.
Participants completed a standardised anonymous survey during their trip to the STI outpatient clinic while waiting for preliminary evaluation results after their consultation with a nurse or physician. Backpage Escorts nearest Murdoch Western Australia. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-demographics and HIV status of the participant, the three most recent partners in the preceding six months, and information on sexual behaviour with those partners. A comprehensive description of the study design and the questionnaire is provided elsewhere 15 , 18 Our chief determinant of interest, dating place (e.g., the name of a bar, park, club, or the name of a website) was obtained for every partner, and categorised into online (websites), and offline (physical sites) dating locations. To simplify the language of distinguishing the partners per dating location, we refer to them as online or offline partners.
We used data from a cross-sectional study focusing on spread of STI via sexual networks 15 Between July 2008 and August 2009 MSM were recruited from the STI outpatient clinic of the Public Health Service of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Men were eligible for participation if they reported sexual contact with men during the six months preceding the STI consultation, they were at least 18years old, and may comprehend written Dutch or English. Individuals could participate more than once, if subsequent visits to the practice were related to a potential new STI episode. Participants were routinely screened for STI/HIV according to the standard procedures of the STI outpatient clinic 15 , 17 The study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the Academic Medical Center of Amsterdam (MEC 07/181), and written informed consent was obtained from each participant. Included in this analysis were guys who reported sexual contact with at least one casual partner dated online as well one casual partner dated offline. Backpage escorts closest to Murdoch Australia.
With increased familiarity in sexual partnerships, for example by concordant ethnicity, age, lifestyle, HIV status, and raising sex frequency, the odds for UAI increase as well 14 - 16 We compared the occurrence of UAI in online got casual partnerships to that in offline acquired casual partnerships among MSM who reported both on-line and offline casual partners in the preceding six months. Backpage Escorts in Murdoch, Western Australia. We hypothesised that MSM who date sex partners both online and offline, report more UAI with the casual partners they date on the internet, and that this effect is partly explained through better knowledge of partner features, including HIV status.
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